GLOBAL MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES AND ENCOUNTERED PROBLEMS IN FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION FIRMS: THE CASE OF A GLOBAL FIRM IN TURKEY

Authors

  • Berkay ÖZKAYA Öğr. Gör

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6788601%20

Keywords:

Food safety, food inspection, global marketing, entry strategies

Abstract

Currently various enterprises have begun to provide services to international markets regarding food safety and inspection. The present study aims to determine i) global market entry strategies the strategies of the firm, ii) the criteria that determine these strategies and iii) potential problems that might arise during and after entry to the market. The study uses an explorative method and qualitative research methods and a semi-structured interview technique. To this end, interviews have been conducted with three people serving in positions of Regional Sales Manager, Global Key Account Manager and Beyond Testing Sales Manager in a global firm serving 26 countries (including Turkey) in the field of food safety and inspection using judgment sampling method.

Findings of the study revealed that the firms serving in the field of food safety and inspection mainly adopted joint venture-like structures or acquisition among the ownership based entry mode or as a strategy to enter global markets. As for their preferences for strategies, the study found that the most prominent criteria for the firms included the activity level in country market, status of laboratories and personnel with technical capabilities, firm’s own capabilities, the status of the rivals, global political relations, political structure of the market and legal regulations. The problems encountered by the firms were found to be inadequate infrastructure and personnel resources, business practices, laws and regulations. On the other hand, considering the scope and the method of the study, we believe that the present study can be further extended to include similar firms serving in the related field in Turkey for a future study.

Author Biography

Berkay ÖZKAYA, Öğr. Gör

Türk Hava Kurumu Üniversitesi

References

Abalkhanov A. (2003). Uluslararası Pazarlara Giriş Stratejileri ve Bir Uygulama, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Marmara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.

Akın, H. (2006). Yeni İşimiz Dış Ticaret. İstanbul: Elma Yayın Evi.

Albaum, G., Strandskov, J. ve Duerr, E. (2002). International Marketing and Export Management, 4. Baskı. Prentice Hall.

Ayden, Y., Demirbağ, M. ve Tatoğlu, E. (2018). Market Entry Strategies of Turkish MNEs. Turkish Multinationals, Palgrave Studies of Internationalization in Emerging Markets, 127-168.

Baker, W., Grinstein, A. ve Perin, M. (2019). The Impact of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Foreign Market Entry: the Roles of Marketing Program Adaptation, Cultural Distance, and Unanticipated Events. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 18, 63-91.

Benmamoun, M., Kalliny, M., Chun, W. ve Kim, S.H. (2018). The İmpact Of Manager's Animosity And Ethnocentrism On Multinational Enterprise (MNE) İnternational Entry‐Mode Decision. Thunderbird International Business Review, 61 (2), 413-423.

Berg, B. L. (2001). Qualitative Research Methods For Social Scientists. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Can, E. ve Seyit, E. (2016). Türkiye’deki Özel Hastaneler İçin Küresel Pazara Giriş Stratejileri Üzerine Bir Model Önerisi. Uluslararası Sağlık Yönetimi ve Stratejileri Araştırma Dergisi , 2, 31-44.

Cateora, P.R. ve Graham, J.L. (1999). Intarnational Marketing, 10. Baskı. McGraw Hill.

Cengiz, E., Gegez, E.A., Arslan, M. ve Pirtini, S. (2003), Uluslararası Pazarlara Giriş Stratejileri. İstanbul: Der Yayınları.

Cheptegei, D.K. ve Yabs, J. (2016). Oreign Market Entry Strategies Used By Multinational Corporatıons In Kenya: A Case Of Coca Cola Kenya Ltd. European Journal of Business and Strategic Management, 1 (2), 71 – 85.

CSFS (Centre for Studies in Food Security). (2015). The Five A's of Food Security. Ryerson Üniversitesi, Toronto https://www.ryerson.ca/foodsecurity/

Çukur, F., Yücel, B. ve Demirbaş, N. (2016). AB ve Türkiye'de Arıcılık Faaliyetine Yönelik Gıda Güvenliği Uygulamaları Sorunlar ve Öneriler. Tarım Ekonomisi Dergisi, 22 (2), 87-95.

Demir, M. (2006). İhracat ve İhracat Teşvikleri, 2. Basım. Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık.

Douxchamps, S., Van Wijk, M.T., Silvestri, S., Moussa, A.S., Quiros, C., Ndour, N.Y.B., Buah, S., Somé, L., Herroro, M., Kristjanson, P., Ouedraogo, M., Thornton, P.K., Van Asten, P., Zougmoré, R. ve Rufino, M.C. (2016). Linking agricultural adaptation strategies, food security and vulnerability: evidence from West Africa. Regional Environmental Change, 1-13.

Ekonomik Kalkınma ve İşbirliği Örgütü (OECD). (2012). OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050, The Consequences Of Inaction, OECD Publishing. https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/oecd-environmental-outlook-to-2050_9789264122246-en#page3

Erenler, S. (2001). Uluslararası Paz arlara Giriş Yöntemlerinin Analizi ve Bir Model Önerisi, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Marmara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.

Erramilli, M.K. ve Rao, C.P. (1990). Choice of Foreign Market Entry Modes by Service Firms: Role of Market Knowledge. Management International Review, 30, (2), 135-150.

FAO. (2009). How to Feed the World in 2050. High- Level Expert Forum, 12-13 Ekim 2009. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/wsfs/docs/Issues_papers/HLEF2050_Global_Agriculture.pdf

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (2019). Trade Reforms and Food Security, Conceptualizing the linkages. Roma, 2003. http://www.fao.org/3/a-y4671e.pdf

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (2019). Food safety, everyone’s business. http://www.fao.org/3/ca4449en/ca4449en.pdf

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). (2021). A Guide to World Food Safety Day 2021. https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/a-guide-to-world-food-safety-day-2021

Gleb, B. ve Liudmila, P. (2018). FDI Motivation And Entry Strategies Of Russian Companies In The Chinese Market. Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research, 104, 439-447.

Gutierrez, F.R. ve Machuca, K.L.J. (2017). International markets entry strategy determinants: an exploratory study in Peru. Cuadernos de Administración, Universidad del Valle, 33 (59), 1-19.

Günay, G. N. (2005). Türkiye’de Hazır Giyim ve Konfeksiyon Endüstrisinde Uygulanan Uluslararası Pazarlara Giriş Stratejileri: Sorunlar ve Çözüm Yolları. Ege Akademik Bakış, 5, 115-140.

Hennessey, H.D. ve Jeannet, J.P. (1988). International Marketing Management Studies and Cases. Haughten Mifflin Company.

Hollensen, S. (1998). Global Marketing: A Market Responsive Approach. Prentice Hall.

Holtbrügge, D. ve Berning, S. C. (2018). Market Entry Strategies and Performance of Chinese Firms in Germany: The Moderating Effect of Home Government Support, Management International Review, 58, 1 (6), 147-170.

Hwang, S.W. (2017). Middle-ground players in dynamic imitative markets: global entry strategies of Korean firms in the biosimilars market. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 29 (3), 325-338.

http://www.fao.org/food/food-safety-quality/capacity-development/haccp/en/ adresinden 2 Mayıs 2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.

http://www.fao.org/food-safety/en/ adresinden 8 Mayıs 2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.

http://www.fao.org/3/a0104e/a0104e08.htm adresinden 19 Mayıs 2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.

https://foodsecurityindex.eiu.com/ adresinden 12 Mayıs 2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.

https://impact.economist.com/sustainability/project/food-security-index/ adresinden 11 Nisan 2022 tarihinde erişilmiştir.

https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2008/09/20080926-4.htm adresinden 21 Mayıs 2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.

http://tesk.org.tr/view/mevzuat/goster.php?Guid=80b81e70-1a76-11ea-9eaf-000c29b32a85 adresinden 10 Mayıs 2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.

https://tse.org.tr/IcerikDetay?ID=2438&ParentID=70 adresinden 15 Mayıs 2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.

https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/06-06-2019-food-safety-is-everyones-business adresinden 20 Nisan 2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/food-safety adresinden 13 Mayıs 2020 tarihinde erişilmiştir.

Jung, J. (2004). Acquisitions or Joint Ventures: Foreign Market Entry Strategy of U.S. Advertising Agencies. The Journal of Media Economics, 17 (1), 35–50.

Kaplan, T. (2017). The Bandwagon Effect Of Leaders' Entry Strategies On Followers' Entry Strategies. The Eurasia Proceedings of Educational & Social Sciences (EPESS), 8, 64-72.

Karafakioğlu, M. (1997). Uluslararası Pazarlama Yönetimi, 2. Basım. İstanbul: Beta Basım Yayım Dağıtım A.Ş.

Keegan, S. F. (2009). People, Cultures And Qualitative Research Good Decision Making Through Understanding Markets. Londra: Kogan Page Publishing.

Kittilaksanawong, W. (2016). Institutional distances, resources and entry strategies Evidence from newly industrialized economy firms. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 12 (1),. 58-78

Koç, G. ve Uzmay, A. (2015). Gıda Güvencesi Ve Gıda Güvenliği Kavramsal Çerçeve, Gelişmeler ve Türkiye. Tarım Ekonomisi Dergisi, 21 (1), 39-48.

Koç, G. ve Uzmay, A. (2019). Küresel Gıda Güvencesinin İzlenmesi ve Haritalanması Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. ADÜ Ziraat Dergisi, 16, 237-244.

Kotler, P. ve Armstrong G. (1994), Principles Of Marketing, 7. Edu.

Kotobe, M. ve Helsen, K. (1998). Global Marketing Management. John Wiley 8. Cons. Inc.

Levi, K.J.B. (2007). Market Entry Strategies of Foreign Telecom Companies in India. Der Deutsche Universitäts-Verlag ist ein Unternehmen von Springer Science+Business Media.

Maqsoom, A., Kan, A.Q., Ali, U. ve Mehmood, F. (2016). Foreign market entry An analysis of barriers and market entry modes adopted by Pakistani Contractors. Creative Construction Conference 2016, Budapest, Hungary, 25-28 June 2016.

Mills, A. J., Durepos, G., Wiebe, E. (2010). 1). Londra: Sage Publications.

Mucuk, İ. (2001), Pazarlama İlkeleri. İstanbul: Türkmen Kitapevi.

Nakip, M. ve Yaraş, E. (2017). SPS Encyclopedia Of Case Study Research (Vol. S Uygulamalı Pazarlamada Araştırma Teknikleri (4. Baskı). Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.

Oo, K.S., Than, S.S. ve Oo, T.H. (2019). A Model HACCP Plan for Fish Seasoning Powder Production. American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 7, ( 6), 200-204.

Peng, M.W. (2018). Global 4 Global Business (4. Baskı). Boston: Cengage Learning.

Punch, K. F. (2014). Sosyal araştırmalara giriş, nitel ve nicel yaklaşımlar (Çev. D. Bayrak, H. B. Arslan, Z. Akyüz). Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi

Ritchie, J., ve Lewis, J. (2003). Qualitative Research Practice—A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers. London, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.

Schlegelmilch, B. (2016) Global Marketing Strategy An Executive Digest. İsviçre: Springer

Setjort, M. ve Lindsten, C.L. (1995). How To Succeed In Export. Academic Press, Jönköping Üniversity.

Singh, D., Singh, D. ve Sandhu, N. (2017). New Market Entry Strategies: Public and Private Sector Banks in India. SCMS Journal of Indian Management, January - March 2017, 123-134.

Soon, J. M., Brazier, A. ve Wallace, C. (2020). Determining common contributory factors in food safety incidents – A review of global outbreaks and recalls 2008–2018. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 97, 76-87.

Szymanski, D. M., Bharadwaj, S. G. ve Varadarajan, P. R. (1993). Standardization versus Adaptation of International Marketing Strategy: An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Marketing, 57(4), 1–17.

Tenekecioğlu, B. (2002). Uluslararası Pazarlama. Eskişehir: Açık Öğretim Fakültesi Yayınları.

The Economist. (2021). Global Food Security Index 2020 Addressing structural inequalities to build strong and sustainable food systems. https://www.agbiz.co.za/document/open/global-food-security-index-2020 adresinden 11 Nisan 2022 tarihinde erişilmiştir.

T.C. Resmi Gazete. (1930). Belediye Kanunu. 14.04.1930 Sayı: 1471. Başvekâlet Müdevvenat Matbaası.

T.C. Resmi Gazete. (1995). Gıdaların Üretimi, Tüketimi ve Denetlenmesine Dair Kanun Hükmünde Kararname. 28.06.1995. Sayı: 22327.

T.C. Resmi Gazete. (2004). Gıdaların Üretimi, Tüketimi ve Denetlenmesine Dair Kanun Hükmünde Kararnamenin Değiştirilerek Kabulü Hakkında Kanun. 05.06.2004. Sayı: 25483.

T.C. Resmi Gazete. (2008). Gıda Güvenliği Ve Kalitesinin Denetimi Ve Kontrolüne Dair Yönetmelik. 26.09.2008. Sayı: 27009.

T.C. Resmi Gazete. (2011). Gıda Hijyeni Yönetmeliği. 11.12.2011. Sayı: 28145.

T.C. Resmi Gazete. (2011). Gıda Ve Yemin Resmi Kontrollerine Dair Yönetmelik. 17.12.2011. Sayı: 28145.

T.C. Resmi Gazete. (2013). Türk Gıda Kodeksi Gıda Katkı Maddeleri Yönetmeliği. 30.06.2013. Sayı: 28693.

T.C. Resmi Gazete. (2017). Türk Gıda Kodeksi Gıda Etiketleme Ve Tüketicileri Bilgilendirme Yönetmeliği. 26.01.2017. Sayı: 29960.

T.C. Resmi Gazete. (2017). Türk Gıda Kodeksi Gıda Katkı Maddelerinin Spesifikasyonları Hakkında Yönetmelik. 03.04.2017. Sayı: 30027.

UNICEF, World Food Programme & World Health Organization. (2020). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019. (http://www.fao.org/3/ca5162en/ca5162en.pdf)

Watson, G. F., Weaven, S., Perkins, H., Sardana, D., ve Palmatier, R. W. (2018). International Market Entry Strategies: Relational, Digital, and Hybrid Approaches. Journal of International Marketing, 26(1), 30–60.

Walvoord, R.W. (2001). Foreign Market Entry Strategies. Advanced Management Journal, Spring, 14–26.

Yalçın K. (2002). Dış Pazarlara Yönelme Nedenleri ve Stratejileri. İstanbul.

Yin, R. K. (2002). Case study research (Design and methods). California: Sage Publication.

Yoboue, W.K., Yi, K. ve Antwi, H.A. (2017). New Paradigms in International Market Entry : A Reflection on the Present and the Future. International Journal of Scientific Research in Science and Technology, 3(2), 59-67.

Zhao, S. ve Priporas, C.V. (2016). Information technology and marketing performance within international market-entry alliances A review and an integrated conceptual framework. International Marketing Review, 34(1), 5-28.

Published

2022-07-01

How to Cite

ÖZKAYA, B. . (2022). GLOBAL MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES AND ENCOUNTERED PROBLEMS IN FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION FIRMS: THE CASE OF A GLOBAL FIRM IN TURKEY. EUROASIA JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES & HUMANITIES, 9(26), 26–45. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6788601

Issue

Section

Articles